Wednesday, October 13, 2010

My Daily Domestic Clips 10/14/2010 (a.m.)

  • tags: catholic liturgicalyear

    • Dangers and Unreliability of
      Mammography: Breast Examination is a Safe, Effective, and Practical
      Alternative


      Samuel S. Epstein, Rosalie Bertell, and Barbara Seaman



      International Journal of Health Services, 31(3):605-615, 2001.



      Mammography screening is a profit-driven technology posing risks compounded
      by unreliability. In striking contrast, annual clinical breast
      examination
      (CBE) by a trained health professional, together with monthly
      breast self-examination (BSE), is safe, at least as effective,
      and low
      in cost. International programs for training nurses how to perform
      CBE and teach BSE are critical and overdue.


      Contrary to popular
      belief and assurances by the U. S. media and the cancer establishment- the
      National Cancer Institute (NCI) and American Cancer Society (ACS)- mammography
      is not a technique for early diagnosis. In fact, a breast cancer
      has usually been present for about eight years before it can finally
      be detected. Furthermore, screening should be recognized as damage
      control, rather than misleadingly as "secondary prevention."

    • Claims for the benefit of screening mammography in reducing breast cancer mortality
      are based on eight international controlled trials involving about 500,000 women
      (23). However, recent meta-analysis of these trials revealed that only two, based
      on 66,000 postmenopausal women, were adequately randomized to allow statistically
      valid conclusions (23). Based on these two trials, the authors
      concluded that "there is no reliable evidence that screening decreases breast
      cancer
      mortality- not even a tendency towards an effect." Accordingly, the authors concluded
      that there is no longer any justification for screening mammography; further
      evidence for this conclusion will be detailed at the May 6, 2001, annual meeting
      of the National Breast Cancer Coalition in Washington, D. C., and published in
      the July report of the Nordic Cochrane Centre.
    • Even assuming that high quality
      screening of a population of women between the ages of 50 and 69 would reduce
      breast cancer mortality by up to 25 percent, yielding a reduced relative risk
      of 0.75, the chances of any individual woman benefiting are remote (18). For
      women in this age group, about 4 percent are likely to develop breast cancer
      annually, about one in four of whom, or 1 percent overall, will die from this
      disease. Thus, the 0.75 relative risk applies to this 1 percent, so 99.75 percent
      of the women screened are unlikely to benefit.

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

No comments:

Post a Comment


Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...